A very fast-growing hybrid of black cottonwood and eastern cottonwood is grown in plantations in Oregon for pulp, lumber and biomass. Today, acorns are still gathered by people of many different tribes in southern Oregon and relished as food. Character The California black oak is a hardwood tree with a broad rounded crown from 32 to 80 feet high. It is the largest mountain oak in the West. The trunk bark is dark and covered with small plates. The bright green leaves are distinctly six-lobed, ending in one to four bristles.
Understory vegetation is generally sparse under California black oak, although shrubs may become abundant and competitive after fire or cutting. Climate California black oak is adapted to a climate characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Its climate has an average annual precipitation range of 30 to 70 inches. California black oak grows best in a zone where 10 to 50 percent of the precipitation occurs as snow. California black oak is intolerant of shade for most of its life. The filbert tree is a close relative of the California hazel and a variety that is native to Oregon.
Character Native shrubs or small trees form thickets growing 3 to 50 feet tall. Its main stem is straight, with spreading, ascending branches. Leaves are often velvety-hairy, nearly round to ovate and 1. Tiny filaments protrude from the husk and may stick and irritate the skin. Understory California hazelnut is used in hedgerow, riparian and wildlife habitat plantings to provide cover and food. Many animals including squirrels, chipmunks, jays, grouse and pheasant eat the nuts. Management California hazelnut does well in full sun or shade, and prefers moist but well-drained, loamy, acid soils.
California hazelnut may need to be watered during the first year or two, but requires little management once established. Protecting our water source The California red fir often dominates large areas of high country that are a major watershed, particularly in California. For this reason it has long been an important forest tree.
The name red fir derives from the bark color of old trees. It is used for fuel, coarse lumber, quality veneer, solid framing, plywood and printing paper. Character This species has a narrow conical crown with horizontal branches and flattened needles, about 1 inch long, resembling a hockey stick. Male cones are purple to dark red and female cones are reddish-brown and located near the top of the crown.
Understory Dense red fir stands on good-quality sites usually have no understory vegetation. Best growth appears to be in areas that receive between 30 and 49 inches of precipitation annually. Management The California red fir is a climax species nearly everywhere it is found, maturing in approximately years.
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It is responsible for much of the timber volume in California, but is less accessible in the high altitudes of the Siskiyou and Cascades ranges in Oregon where harvesting is minimal. Tree or shrub, it's all about location This oak grows best in sheltered canyons, and can reach heights of 80 feet or more. However, on exposed mountain slopes, it is often a small shrub forming dense thickets.
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Because it is an attractive tree that grows easily on steep, rocky slopes, it is desirable to urban planners as a slope stabilizer. Range In the northern part of its range, this oak often dominates steep, shallow, rocky ledges with little soil development. Character An evergreen tree with a rounded, dense crown, it may also be a low shrub in dry, open habitats. The mature bark is gray and scaly. With older trees the leaves appear smoother. Understory Dense thickets and infertile soil keep its understory free of most other plants and shrubs.
However, this species does provide shelter, and its acorns are an important source of food for jays, woodpeckers, mountain quail, ground squirrels and mule deer. Climate Canyon live oak occurs in climates characterized by mild, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Management Canyon live oak is considered a non-manageable hardwood; however, its rapid sprout growth make it an excellent source of fuel wood. Manufactured into paneling, the wood makes an attractive multicolored interior wall covering. The bark of this shrubby tree has been used for at least 1, years as a powerful laxative and is still collected for that purpose.
Pharmaceutical companies process 5 million pounds of cascara bark from the Pacific Northwest annually for use in laxatives. Range Usually in the understory, found throughout western Oregon on moist, well-drained sites.
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It typically grows as a second-generation tree after alders have grown on barren soil. Character It is easy to spot because of buds covered only by soft fuzz during winter. Seldom taller than 40 feet and often more shrubby. It features tiny flowers, each with five greenish-yellow petals.
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Its fruit is bright red at first, quickly changing to deep purple or black. Understory The cherry-like fruit is inedible to humans. Grouse and raccoons eat the fruit and will pass the seed undigested, so it may be widely distributed. Climate It grows on the western side of the state, spanning from British Columbia down into northern California.
Management Cascara sprouts vigorously, so is often found in stands that have been logged or burned. The large forests of Lebanon cedars of ancient days no longer exist. But because of its beauty and history, the Lebanon cedar has been planted throughout the world. Range Lebanon cedars grow at elevations of 4, to 6, feet.
They grow best in deep soil on slopes facing the sea. The trees require a lot of light and about 40 inches of rain a year. Character The first thing you notice about the Lebanon cedar is the large wide horizontal branches. It can grow 80 feet tall and spread out from 30 to 50 feet wide.aprea.vvinners.com/12099.php
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It grows very slowly but often lives for centuries. The oldest known cedar of Lebanon is more than 1, years old. Understory When its needles fall to the ground they don't decay for several years. This stifles scrub growth, so its understory is often a low undergrowth of grasses. Climate The cedar of Lebanon is the most cold-tolerant species of cedar. It is very similar to the Atlas Cedar, but has a much thicker trunk and, like the Atlas cedar, it is not suited to street plantings, but makes an exceptional specimen tree.
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Management The cedar of Lebanon prefers well-drained, fertile soil, but can tolerate infertile, dry or alkaline soil and, while it requires full sun, it is intolerant of humidity. Chokecherries were the most important fruit in several Native American tribes, as it was not only used for food but for medicinal purposes as well, including the treatment of fevers and colds. Legend has it the Sacagawea was captured by Blackfoot while she collected chokecherries and taken east, where she met Lewis and Clark.
Range Grows throughout the West but also spans Canada and the northern U. Character The chokecherry can be described as either a large deciduous shrub or a small tree, seldom above 30 feet. Its bark is thin and scaly yet without lenticels, and the leaves are simple and oval-shaped. Fruit is small and purple with a single seed inside. Understory Deer and elk will eat leaves and twigs.
Birds and small mammals will eat the fruits. Climate It loves sunny, moist areas in the southern Willamette Valley, southwestern Oregon and northeast Oregon. Management The management of chokecherry requires control of weedy vegetation and treatment for potential diseases. The mystical giant The coast redwood is a long-living, giant conifer native to the coast of northern California and southern Oregon, although the genus once spanned the globe.
It can live well over 1, years!
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